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What are Cognitive Strategies

Wienstien and Meyer (1986) categorised cognitive strategies as:

Organising Structure information in memory (new or old)
Elaboration Establishes links with existing and new information
Rehearsal Assist the encoding and retrieval of information that is difficult to elaborate and hard to structure.
Comprehension Monitoring Assist the learner they are understanding or learning
Support Self motivating skills that help to keep active engagement and maintain the attitude towards learning
Metacognition Is the students awareness of their own cognitive processes, their ability to control them and revise them
Strategies of this sort are although very powerful often ignore the importance of knowledge in the subject at hand. To use cognitive strategies to good effect the last item in the table metacognition is essential. It is the so-called empowering skill and allows the further good use of other cognitive strategies. A strategy may be introduced from within a lesson or it can be taught in its own right and a decision needs to be made as to which. A well-designed lesson would also include the necessary instruction in relevant skills and strategies if they had not been encountered before. The difficulty is as an instructor, knowing when the need is there and when it can be assumed.
There are also many variances to cognitive strategies but the main members are:
Ordering, classifying, arranging complex arrays). Chunking may be supplantive or generative.
Concept Maps Arranging the major concepts of an instruction in to a visual sequence).
Advance Organising Recalling of prior knowledge and previewing of the coming lesson).
Metaphor Effective to transposes meaning from one event to another).
Rehearsal Review, asking and posing questions, prediction of what is to follow and others misc. strategies).
Imagery Mental visualisation of objects events and arrays…this is not to be confused with concept mapping).
Mnemonics Artificial memory aids such as first letter encoding).
Cognitive tools & strategies can be provided by the instructor or generated by the learners. When generated by the learner they are understood most wholeheartedly, but good learned guidance is needed to keep check of competency.


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